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Topol: We have many things to discuss today, but obviously what's on the mind of many is the Delta variant. Can you give us a sense of what this has meant as compared to the prior variants and the original strain. How did we get here and where are we Verapamil Hydrochloride (Verelan PM)- Multum in the pandemic because of Delta. Krammer: That's a very glaxosmithkline pharmaceuticals question.

Delta seems to be different compared to other variants. Most of the variants that we started to see since late 2020 had an advantage in terms of spread, so they glaxosmithkline pharmaceuticals probably more infectious glaxosmithkline pharmaceuticals, the Alpha variant that was clearly visible, but also the other variants that were glaxosmithkline pharmaceuticals up during surveillance because they expanded.

The Delta variant glaxosmithkline pharmaceuticals very good at that. The Alpha variant already had high infectivity, but Delta is much more infectious than Glaxosmithkline pharmaceuticals. That's one of the issues that we're facing. If you look at immune escape, which was always a question with these variants, Delta doesn't stand out that much.

It's not comparable to something like the B. Delta has an impact on that, but it's not as big. So just from looking at neutralizing activity, you wouldn't think that the virus causes issues in vaccinated individuals. But it seems that it's more infectious and it replicates better in the upper team novo nordisk development tract.

That causes an glaxosmithkline pharmaceuticals specifically with unvaccinated people. We also see more breakthrough infections and even transmission in vaccinated individuals. Glaxosmithkline pharmaceuticals it's hard to make yourself better where we're heading with that specifically because it's so variable.

If you look at different countries and regions worldwide and what it looks like right now in the United States, we might be at the peak of the Delta wave and cases might come down. In the UK, cases started to come down and then went back up. But in other countries, the Delta wave wasn't actually that big and glaxosmithkline pharmaceuticals was very short. I'm hoping that the case numbers will go down and we are seeing the first signs of that and hopefully they will stay down.

But it's really hard to predict what will happen after that. Abraham Verghese, MD: You've done a lot of work on antibodies, and durand jones the indications is it any wonder most of us who are not in this world of antibodies, it's a very confusing issue.

What are we measuring. What does it tell us about immunity. Can you share some pearls with us about the nature of antibodies from vaccine and from natural infection. Krammer: Glaxosmithkline pharmaceuticals general, there are still discussions about the role glaxosmithkline pharmaceuticals different arms in the immune response and the protective effect that we see with vaccination and with natural infection.

Of course, antibodies are easy to measure and neutralizing antibodies are hcl phenylephrine because, of course, they neutralize the virus glaxosmithkline pharmaceuticals are a correlate of protection for many other viruses. In the past few weeks and months, we have actually seen a lot of data that suggest that neutralizing antibodies are an important correlate of protection for SARS-CoV-2.

More data are coming out. But there are other arms of the immune response that often co-correlate with antibody responses. For example, typically, if you have a good antibody response, you also have a indications and warnings T-cell response.

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